The European Society for Research in Mathematics Education was founded in 1998. Since then, not a single institution or an individual from the areas of the former Yugoslavia have, yet joined the society or participated in any of its activities. This article has been written for the mathematics community of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and particularly for the Ministries of Education and Science, because of the need to begin the process of joining the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education. In particular, it is important that mathematicians become involved with research on mathematics education. In this article, the authors try to explain a number of problems related to mathematics education. Thus, we will consider the need for a change in the goals of mathematics education within the school system. On the other hand, we will explore the opinion that the Education ministry should consider the possibility of introducing different ways of teaching mathematics in primary and secondary schools, in order to follow, at least partially, the important reforms which are already taking place in this field.