This paper aims at giving a concise survey of the present state-of-the-art of mathematical modelling in mathematics education and instruction. It will consist of four parts. In part 1, some basic concepts relevant to the topic will be clarified and, in particular, mathematical modelling will be defined in a broad, comprehensive sense. Part 2 will review arguments for the inclusion of modelling in mathematics teaching at schools and universities, and identify certain schools of thought within mathematics education. Part 3 will describe the role of modelling in present mathematics curricula and in everyday teaching practice. Some obstacles for mathematical modelling in the classroom will be analysed, as well as the opportunities and risks of computer usage. In part 4, selected materials and resources for teaching mathematical modelling, developed in the last few years in America, Australia and Europe, will be presented. The examples will demonstrate many promising directions of development.