Intelligent Image Classification-Based on Spatial Weighted Histograms of Concentric Circles

Bushra Zafar, Rehan Ashraf, Nouman Ali, Mudassar Ahmed, Sohail Jabbar, Kashif Naseer, Awais Ahmad, Gwanggil Jeon

As digital images play a vital role in multimedia content, the automatic classification of images is an open research problem. The Bag of Visual Words (BoVW) model is used for image classification, retrieval and object recognition problems. In the BoVW model, a histogram of visual words is computed without considering the spatial layout of the 2-D image space. The performance of BoVW suffers due to a lack of information about spatial details of an image. Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM) is a popular technique that computes the spatial layout of the 2-D image space. However, SPM is not rotation-invariant and does not allow a change in pose and view point, and it represents the image in a very high dimensional space. In this paper, the spatial contents of an image are added and the rotations are dealt with efficiently, as compared to approaches that incorporate spatial contents. The spatial information is added by constructing the histogram of circles, while rotations are dealt with by using concentric circles. A weighed scheme is applied to represent the image in the form of a histogram of visual words. Extensive evaluation of benchmark datasets and the comparison with recent classification models demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The proposed representation outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of classification accuracy.